Yok Don National Park is one of biggest specialized forests in Vietnam, belongs to 2 provinces Dak Nong and Dak Lak. The South of national park belongs to Dak Wil village, Dak Nong Province with an area of 42.14 ha, flat terrain, elevation is about 200m. Biodiversity of Yok Don National Park is as follow:
Diversity of ecosystem
In region of Yok Don National Park, there are both natural ecosystem and artificial ecosystem. Therein, natural ecosystem accounts for more than 85 percent, mainly broadleaf evergreen natural forestry ecosystem, broadleaf half drop natural forestry ecosystem and broadleaf drop natural forestry ecosystem. The Dry dipterocarp Forest ecosystem is feature of this national park, mainly distributed in boundary between Vietnam and Cambodia. It is unique nation park in Vietnam to preserve this special forest.
Diversity of vegetation species
According to research result, flora is mainly Taxon of Magnoliophyta, accounts for 93.2 percentages of families, 97.6 percentages of genera and 98.8 percentages of species; therein Magnoliopsida is the most popular, with 559 species belongs to 283 genera and 101 families.
In total of 108 vegetation families, there are 16 families with more than 10 species, including Ricinus (Euphorbiaceae): 50 species; Coffee (Rubiaceae): 40 species; Bean (Fabaceae): 35 species; Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): 24 species; O ro (Acanthaceae) and Rice (Poaceae): 14 species; Apitong (Dipterocarpaceae): 13 species; Custard-apple (Annonaceae) and Caesalpiniaceae: 12 species; Mint families (Lamiaceae), Verbena (Verbenaceae): 11 species; Anacardiaceae, Combretaceae and Cyperaceae: 10 species.
There are 14 rare and precious species in Vietnam Red Book (1996) that need to be protected, among them, there are 07 species in Vulnerable level (V: Vulnerable), 01 species in threatened level (T: Threatened), 06 species in Insufficiently know level (K: Insufficiently know).
There are 227 wood species, lot of them have high economic value as Dalbergia, D. cochinchinensis, afzelia xylocarpa, pterocarpus macrocarpus, sindora siamensis, xylia xylocarpa, hopea odorata, shorea siamensis, S. obtuse… Moreover, there are 116 medicinal species, 35 ornamental species and another resource value as providing materials for knit, handicraft and food…
Diversity of animal species: Due to characteristic of the Dry dipterocarp Forest ecosystem and flat terrain condition, the fauna property is special. Research results of fauna from 1991 showed that Yok Don National Park has 384 vertebrate animal species, among them 70 beasts, 250 birds, 48 reptiles and 16 amphibian species
- The beast: Currently, 70 species has been recorded, 30 species are written in Vietnam Red Book and 17 species in the IUCN Red list (IUCN 2000). The beast here is characterized by abundance of ungulate. The significant and important species for conservation are elephant, tiger, gaur and bison.
- The bird: According to investigation results of the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (2001) and additional investigation of Bird Life (2002), the bird in Yok Don has 250 species, 20 species are written in Vietnam Red Book (2009), 09 endemic species and 1 limited distribution. The global threatened species are Polyplectron germaini, Pavo muticus, Anorrhinus tickelli, Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus, Butastur liventer, Polihierax insignis, Leptoptilos javanicus…
- The Reptiles, frogs: The investigation results of the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (2001) and additional investigation (2002) pointed 48 reptile species belongs to 17 families, 4 sets and 16 frog species belongs to 4 families, 1 set; amongst them, 16 species (accounts for 29.6 percentage of number of species) which are written in Vietnam Red Book (2000); 2 species (accounts for 3.7 percentage of number of species) at threatened level E (Endangered); 9 species (accounts for 16.6 percentage of number of species) at threatened level V (Vulnerable); 5 species (accounts for 9.2 percentage of number of species) at threatened level T (Threatened).
- The insects: There are 437 species of 83 families, 11 set. In the Lepidoptera, it is clearly recorded about Microlepidoptera. Similar to bird, butterfly is one of species that indicates biodiversity. The diversity of butterfly affirms the biodiversity of Yok Don National Park.